"Who'll Stop the Rain"(1)
By Steven & Evan Strong
Special Thanks to Eddie McPhee & Professor X
In Australia, going on its recent archaeological track record, the answer is no-one. Over the past ten years in the field under the direction of the relevant Elders and Keepers of Old Ways, we have been either actively or indirectly involved in trying to save or gain recognition of eleven sacred sites or artefacts. At present we haven’t scored one solitary run, to this date we have lost every fight. In each battle to gain recognition we have had excellent science, Elders of the highest pedigree and supporting historical records, and it made absolutely no difference because it just never stops raining silence, red tape and under no circumstances.
This most recent example of a blatant disregard for protocol and a holy site of the deepest significance is as tragic as it is so much a part of a continuous pattern of post-Cook neglect. No-one has sincerely apologised for the destruction, no-one will be blamed or punished, and the shareholders dividends will continue to increase. What needs to be appreciated is that what just happened in the Pilbira, was always going to happen. I first got involved in a similar struggle at a site very, very close to this one about five years ago.
An Elder of whom I have highest regard by the name of Eddie McPhee, contacted me about the imminent destruction of another sacred cave that is directly connected to the site now so badly damaged. At that time I knew nothing of the location, politics or any background. Nonetheless, Eddy’s plea for help to assist in preventing the impending destruction of a cave (Ganga Maya) and archaeology of global significance left me no option but to agree to help in any way possible.
Two Hours Somewhere out of Port Headland
I have no innate sense of direction, nor memory of getting to new locations. Even when the countryside is incredibly flat and roads are few, once traveling in a car, walking in the bush, it all comes out the same, in that I always focus on the present and future. As for the past, where I have been is old news and of no use or place to file for future reference. Since Eddy was driving and the scenery varied little, there was no need to be concerned with where or road signs, all I knew for sure is that the mine’s very existence was no longer guaranteed.
The Ganga Maya cave Eddie took me to has an undisputed date older than 40,000 years, and is dedicated to one of the sisters from the Seven Sisters from the Pleiades Dreaming story known throughout the country by every tribe. That heritage, of itself, made this cave essential to the long-term spiritual well-being of the tribe and local Original people. As important as this cave was, I still remember while we stood inside, Eddie spoke of another site of even far greater importance that concerned all seven sisters. Alas, my focus was primarily on the cave where I stood and the real chance it would crumble and fall, but to the best of my recollection I sensed Eddy felt something was amiss at that site also.
At that stage, standing next to Eddie and a company representative who escorted us to the cave, knowing how incredibly geologically unstable the cave was and that Atlas had the legal right to detonate to within fifty metres of the cave’s entrance, talk of another site under question was too far off to really register, then.
I wrote the article, it may have helped marginally, but to be realistic was never going to stop the legal right to do as they please and the impending destruction. When all seemed lost, global market trends stepped in and the price of iron ore fell dramatically, so much so the quarries and gaping holes extracting the lower grades of iron ore were too uneconomical to continue operating. As was now the case at Ganga Maya, they ceased mining at that site. Every building was portable and everything else was easy to relocate, and so ended the threat of blasting at the Ganga Maya cave and the Seven Sisters could rest easy, or so I thought.
An Academic, Eddie and two Letters to the Editor, and all in Twenty-Four Hours
Professor X is an academic, who although does not subscribe to all our explanations, he is sympathetic to our right to raise theories and artefacts that do not fit into any mainstream narrative and will say so. He does keep us informed of the current state of archaeological and geological developments, and it was just over a week ago he asked us if we knew of the destruction in the Pilbara and whether it was actually the Ganga Maya cave that was destroyed.
We knew nothing of this and had been deliberately cutting back on watching any mainstream media, even the news is selected and remodeled to fit, and because of this we do miss out on the gems of wisdom offered by politicians, business men and women and others lacking in integrity. This academic knew of Ganga Maya and was basically asking us if this is the cave that had been neutralised.
I had no knowledge of anything happening so immediately sent an email to Eddie asking for further information and a specific location. Within hours of the email being sent, Eddie rang me. He actually hadn’t seen our email, but what he was ringing about was the same tragic topic. Eddie was not much clearer on when, where or why, but in relation to if, that was definite. Many explosions at the site did take place, of that Eddie was positive.
What also became evident as we spoke was that Eddy had shifted boundaries in his attitude towards the authorities and departments he had dealt with. Before, when I met him while we were at the earlier cave, he got permission to enter with me, the company representative was congenial and open as he took us to the cave. On the way back Eddy spoke of channels and contacts within official destinations he would speak with and lobby. He was playing the game according to their ever-changing rules. Not anymore, he had totally abandoned seeking justice through any official channel. He spoke often about Sovereignty being the only way forward. We spoke more about his absolute belief the system is rigged and lacks justice, compassion and even a semblance of accommodating Original Lore and Old Way thinking into any statute or business decision.
The next morning saw some clarity and latitude enter this racist equation, it wasn’t Ganga Maya but the Juukan Gorge site that had been desecrated by explosions and bulldozer tracks. Until further correspondence from Eddie arrived, it didn’t dawn on me this was the same site he spoke about when we stood together in the cave. Within an hour of identifying what and where, there in the morning edition of the Sydney Morning Herald (June, 1) were three letters to the editor slating and chastising Rio Tinto for this flagrant destruction of a Seven Sister’s Dreaming site.
The first reader’s response opened with Colin Hesse of Marrickville stating that he was “angry to my soul as I am about the destruction by Rio Tinto mining of the sacred rock shelter in the Pilbara, I’m equally angry governments invariably put the interests of miners, loggers, irrigators and developers ahead of our environment and our future.”(2) He concluded his brief plea for fairness and respect for Original Lore and treasures from the past in lamenting that, “the mantra of jobs and economy matter naught if our society has no heart, no history and no environment.”(3) Another citizen made a very valid comparison in location and the morality of the culprits. “The world was outraged when the Taliban blew up the giant statues at Bamiyan. Rio Tinto destroys thousands of years of artefacts and barely a whisper. Where is the shame?”(4)
Another distraught reader managed to cobble together a fine example of lateral thinking in comparing Rio Tinto’s utter disregard for Original culture and the environment to that of the NSWRFB when they were battling the bush-fires. “Nice to see in the bushfire royal commission that the NSWRFB went all out to save a 200 million-year dinosaur relic of historical and biological importance. The NSW government can now hand it over to Rio Tinto so they can blow it up.”(5)
All of these published comments and private discussions took place within 24 hours of first being alerted to the intentional flagrant disregard for something incredibly sacred and special. What resonated from the very first mention of this destruction, was that it wasn’t an isolated mistake or an aberration, but merely the way things are and will continue to be in Australia. Sure, there are statutes, laws and a bounty of Lands Councils supposedly instituted to protect Original rights and sacred sites, but none of it makes any difference. It is that simple, none of these political manoeuvres that create government sponsored pay packets has done anything to avert situations like these. In fact, it is absolute guarantee everything Original will continue in the negative.
The First Eleven
And that is the seminal point that is so easily lost in the political ploys and profits made, what happened at the Pilbara is not an isolated error in administration, but the norm. This is what happens when mining, money and politics collide with the Indigenous legacy of this country. Those with financial power always have the last say, and the final word offered is always the same: no. In providing the next eleven sites/artefacts that are still to be acknowledged, that has to be hedged with one equivocation. With one tragic exception, all of the eleven sites/relics are still to be awarded the tick of authenticity. The one site that went through all the hoops and obstacles and was not only extensively investigated then dated, no-one with money or crushed rocks disputed the date or sacredness of the men’s ceremonial site.
What is interesting is that of the eleven we will present, there has been some minor peripheral damage in a few cases. Only one site was also annihilated and exploded, it seems that reward is exclusive to sites further up the accredited scale of acknowledgement. It would seem it would be much safer to say nothing more about the Standing Stones site, the Kariong hieroglyphs or any other precious location or relic, because once recognised, it becomes open slather and ignore as you wish.
- The Standing Stones site near Mullumbimby was first examined in 1938 by Frederic Slater (President of the Australian Archaeological Society) who called it “Australia’s Stonehenge.” There is strong evidence of First Language script, technology of an extremely advanced nature and that Original people were the first human beings.
- The Kariong Hieroglyphs is close to Gosford and has a huge pictorial gallery of an engraved language that pre-dates all other written forms of language, and was the inspiration behind the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic script.
- The Gympie Pyramid is still under direct threat of complete destruction to be replaced by a huge highway. The Original people have been fighting this development for years, and all that seems to happen is that the impending date of removal gets closer. It is a seven-stepped pyramid, Graham Hancock noted that stonework was identical to that in South America, it is absolutely genuine and still considered of less value than a four-laned road. Despite many pleas to deviate ever so slightly, all that is given in return is no.
- Trina’s Megaliths are close to the Gympie Pyramid and are incredibly impressive. There are many perfectly shaped cube granite rocks on site, some weighing close to ten tonnes. Each side is straight, every face flat and it is accompanied by a wall of about eighty rocks stacked and joined into a fifty-metre continuous wall with a steepled curved inset recessed about five centimetres. It faces a less tenuous fate than the Pyramid, simply because all the authorities do not know where it is (deliberately so).
- Klaus’ Walls is no more than two kilometres from the Kariong Glyphs, and just like the last site is so difficult to reach, and because of this, is currently safe. Three walls, two of which measure exactly 293 cms in height, lead inwards to a gallery that is slowly collapsing. The walls are a series of stacked sandstone blocks, each weighing tonnes, with joins so tight I literally could not fit a twig between. As a combined unit, the three parallel walls support a massive sandstone slab that must weigh well over one hundred tonnes. Absolutely artificial and utterly secluded, this site is the safest and least in danger of official hands and channels and the least of our concerns.
- Cedar Creek, just like the caves at Juukan Gorge, has been ravaged and ruined with impunity, and in what is surely no coincidence, the archaeology was done and the site formally recognised as genuine. It is an agreed Githubal men’s ceremonial site, no-one disputes that, not even the Original family who signed off in agreement to quarry will contest that Original truth. The way the judges and politicians got around the request to mine and profiteer was to do some clever legal work around what constituted that site. Yes, the actual ceremonial ground is untouched, but one metre to every side is open slather. They did a ‘Ganga Maya’ here, in determining that which is right next to or bordering does not count, you can blow up within metres and that will not compromise or offend, which is the current legal approach here and at Ganga Maya.
- The two walls at Snowy Mountains are so clearly magnificent and so blatantly ignored. One runs right into a huge dam and keeps descending to a depth unknown. It is right next to a main road, very easy to reach and even easier to dismiss. No less than fifteen thousand rocks make up over one hundred visible metres of about one metre in height and two metres across. Built with small and large rocks evenly spread throughout, unlike the European preference for large boulders at each side with many small rocks piled in between, the wall is Original in construction and astronomical in inclination. The Senior Park Ranger, John Gallard, who took us to this site informed us that experts in astronomy measured and charted this wall and found it aligned perfectly with the conjunction of the five major planets. The other wall is four times longer, and neither wall has been acknowledged or validated, bar submerging half of one structure, no-one from any official channel has shown any interest.
- The number of rocks in our ever-expanding ensemble of sacred and star rocks is now in the hundreds. These rocks contradict so much of what is assumed to be true in relation to humanities’ ancient past. On these rocks is evidence of an incredibly complex and sublime First Language steeped in lengths, angles, intersection points and pure mathematics, technology still to be equalled, the application of heat measured in thousands of degrees, tools of no less than hardened blades and possibly laser or sound, and so many other delicate techniques that coat the surface. Beyond that is what lays beneath and the powers that extend well past what many call magic.
- Four skulls found in Australia that are without sutures, flask-shaped at its widest point of 17 cms near the back end, measure around 400 ccs greater than that of a modern day sapiens, have eye sockets 46% larger than those of sapiens, a crest in the eyebrow ridge between the eyes and so the massive divergence in facial features that belong only to this type of bipedal being continue. We deliberately chose that vague title, simply because anything that is not three sutured cannot be a hominid or sapiens. We have the photos and on-field experience at a site of a fully complete being at a burial site, dozens of bones gifted to us that was first retrieved in 1953, and photos with knowledge of the whereabouts of two other skulls belonging to the same unique genetic enclave that seems decidedly non-terrestrial in origin.
- Then there is the eternally unexpected stream of metal objects that are assumed to have no right to be in Australia until the time of colonisation. At present the tally includes one verified Atlantean ring, two Lemurian rings, a piece of jewellery that has a metal content that is one quarter unknown to any metal found on this planet, along with three other ancient rings yet to be chemically analysed. The three rings that have been analysed and found to be either pure Orichalcum, Orichalcum plus tin and Orichalcum with Nickel extracted replaced with a sizeable portion of Titanium. The real issue here is that the ring from Lemuria (Angor Wat) has Titanium, which was first used in the 1930’s, and this ring is thousands of years old. These two sets of figures do not add up or gel.
- There were so many other candidates to chose from a list I actually compiled some time before the cultural affront and insult instituted by Rio Tinto. Not only did Juukan Gorge demand immediate inclusion, by rights and damage it should be the first entry. But from a dramatic viewpoint such a tragedy needs to come last, so as to leave a lasting impact. A brief acknowledgement should be made of other worthy aspirants pushed aside by the Juukan Jorge tragedy. Of the many others on the reserves bench, mention has to be made of a bone found beside the jewellery with an Alien metallic signature we know to be very ancient and human, the PNG large carved granite heavily sloped head of what looks incredibly like the stereo-typed Alien head of Hollywood, and of course, we could never leave out the Egyptian stone tablet held by Tracey, which we feel is an official treaty between Original people and ancient Egyptians of Khufu’s time.
Cedar Creek and Juukan Gorge, it Just Never Stops Raining Excavation and Destruction
We were personally involved with many Original Elders, Keepers of Culture and supporters from many genes, races and inclinations trying to prevent the mining, quarrying and constant explosions guaranteed if a proposed development of a sacred men’s site proceeds. Cedar Creek was agreed to be sacred, passed every test and gazetted as so, despite this official seal of approval the site is now lost. The blades are tearing, the land is crumbling and trucks are carrying.
We peacefully protested on community land beside the main road. Petitions, lobbying, opposing families barging into meetings with threats of violence and recriminations delivered with malice, were part and parcel of every Original political conflict. All agreed it was an awful state of affairs, but who cares! While this divide and conquer aftermath continues where those chosen to represent Original concerns are in a favoured position where they can be tempted. While most Original people are desperately poor, throwing petrol onto the fire only widens the internal division.
From the little I have learnt from Eddie, personal inquiries and media posts, it is no more than the same again. Just the same old angry divisive stuff tearing apart Original communities, overlaid by official indifference or incompetence at every level. What is deliberately perverse is that no matter where, the same story is repeated. One family, sometimes two, sign off for the lot. That is not Old Way protocol, it is rubbish new way. Under Old Way rules, all listen and consider together, and all opinions are of equal value.
Throughout our extensive historical research, we know as fact white settlers, troops and some with bad motives commented on how when agreements were made with tribal men, it was conditional. The women were to be told and if they disagreed, which they often did, then the agreement was automatically rescinded. Despite the shock and condescension, the non-Original guests experienced, the tribal men made it clear it was all or nothing.
Now it seems in many cases it is now a chosen few decide for everything and everyone, this arrangement will never unite and will invariably divide. Every decision that directly relates to important sacred sites/artefacts. Matters of this profound mystical level, which really should be considered by large tribal councils of men and women and open for all to attend. The regime we have been given and should never have signed off on is not Old Black-fella Way, but new White-fella ‘rule from the top’ thinking. For tribal communal people, this is the antithesis of the way we did things and the essence of tribal ways, and doomed to fail, as it has. It happened at Cedar Creek and happened here. That structure must fail, until it does the fights, nepotism and internal mistrust must prevail. Nothing is getting better, which means the system is broken.
Equally, Rob Williams, a Githubal Elder of which I have the highest possible respect, fought all the way through the courts and everywhere else defending this precious site, but lost as is always the case when it really counts. What really stands out is that what came out of the aftermath of the blades and explosives at Cedar Creek is absolutely identical to the last chapter of the same script at Juukan Jorge. Not only did this all happen while the politicians were alerted, as was the media and countless others, the reasoning and rational which leads to no recriminations, punishment, loss of income or payment of reparation is always the same.
At Cedar Creek and Juukan Gorge up to one centimetre outside the limits of the agreed central point of each site, everything, everywhere is decimated. The legal white-fella map says there is the line upon which no blade or pointy object may transgress. But beyond that delineated line of which we know to be true (got two black signatures in legal document), help yourself do what you want as long as royalties and dues are paid, make yourself comfortable and unaccountable whenever digging outside the boundaries.
Only a person or authority utterly ignorant in Original Lore and history could subscribe to such a blinkered view. All Original sites and artefacts of great significance rest upon well-know lay lines of real pulsating earth energy. This has always been the way, some tracks are like major veins, others are capillaries, but all resonate to the same primal power source of Mother Nature. Cut one track and it ‘bleeds’ all over the place and contact is broken, ceremonies between sacred places which involve moving between sites, are lost. Often even going near such revered places began with time spent in the immediate area, very close indeed, in preliminary ceremony and storytelling before setting forth. How can this happen now?
The White-fella equivalent using today’s setting as a comparison, is a mining company moving in and all around a large town, staking leases and beginning to attack and tear. But there it is in sub-clause in the third paragraph on page 43, one solitary mention of the right of the company to resume every road leading into and out of town if it contained ‘sizable deposits.’ Which is enacted upon with the legally accepted premise being no actual harm is caused to the town premises or margins, and as for access, well that was legally signed away by representatives of two families/parties. The only outcome has to be that is just the way it is, the law is the final arbitrator and your people will have to live with it. It is all so similar in so many ways between all these sites and relics, except for one minor incidental detail at the Pilbara.
“Rio ‘sorry’ for blasting ancient Pilbara art site”(6)
We used reports in the Sydney Morning Herald as our exclusive main stream source, not because it is a recommendation, but simply because no other conventional media outlet bothered with anything more than a quick ‘once-over,’ then back to creating Covid fear and panic in the USA.
On the first day Rio’s opening gambit was primed to confuse and obfuscate, implying that the government sanctioned agreement made with families that endorse and support was vague around the margins and may well consent to explosions and destruction as it was within set legal codes of behaviour. What was fascinating and even more revealing was that the spokesperson readily admitted that their understanding wasn’t a definite yes, but a maybe, and even though there was agreed uncertainty, rather than consult and clarify first, they felt the best path was to explode first then haggle over the details after the carnage.
This insulting and pre-emptive ploy was cast aside in the second media release, they chose an admission that is the last bastion of scoundrels in apologising without any offer of repairing the destruction, fines imposed, sackings or threat of courtroom action. Very simply, they know they made an administrative mistake in operating procedures but will fix it themselves. So, there was no need for impartial parties to intervene or negotiate, as they meant well and will tidy up the mess and move on. “Mining giant Rio Tinto has issued an apology after blowing up a 46,000-year old Aboriginal cave site in Western Australia, vowing to urgently review its plans for other sites nearby and its approach to dealing heritage matters.”(7)
During this revised stance accepting, but never quantifying, what that admission meant in dollars and sense, they made sure their repentance in hindsight was all that was needed, along with a promise to behave in the future. The company did publicly express contrition in that “we pay our respects to the Puutu Kunti Kurrama and Pinikura People (PKKP), and we are sorry for the distress we have caused. Our relationship with the PKKP matters a lot to Rio Tinto, having worked together for many years,” Mr. Salisbury said in a statement.” (8) What a relief, everything is better now as they will now improve their “relationship”(9) and work “together”(10) from this point on.
It all sounds so positive and incredibly contradictory, especially when the same organisation set out how closely the company liaised with the chosen selected family signatories. But the problem with the company investigating their behaviour and intentions is highlighted when the same Original organisation the company nominated, detailed how shallow and shady this co-operative partnership applies at the mine site from day to day.
“The PKKP last week said they had applied to visit the sites and negotiate to stop the blast or limit the damage but were told the explosives had already been laid and it was impossible to remove them.”(11) Honestly if the accredited Original organisation begs for permission to visit the site, knowing destruction is afoot, but was refused entry on the grounds the dynamite is laid and too difficult to pick up and remove, how will things improve? The company knew the endorsed Original organisation was very worried and stated this in a clear unambiguous request to intervene before destruction, and it is not a surprise they retracted the lies of day one for a new set of lies on day two. What is not a surprise is that “the Chamber of Minerals and Energy of Western Australia backed Rio’s commitment,”(12) to destroy first and quibble later. As they should, knowing that the company will not be legally punished and can lie day after day, as they have in their releases, with no repercussions. We would expect no less than total support for those digging holes, and none for the Original owners trying to protect ancient sacred sites.
What Rio Tinto Should Have Conceded and Funded
I want to return to the pivotal point arising out of this senseless vandalism and desecration lacking in morality or genuine contrition, and it isn’t the considerable damage on site, but the exposure of the lack of morality and inability to confront the real cause of this division. When I first met Eddie, he was trying so hard to improve conditions and culture through working within guidelines and government charters, not anymore, he is done with the lies, deceit and hypocrisy. As such, it seems fitting to include this first report into what really happened with Eddies’ response to this outrage and the denials, bureaucratic red tape and political inertia. He knows the truth, sees the deceit, and refuses to play by their rules anymore.
“The whole continent is dying. The mining, their machinery of mass destruction of Nyanal land is engulfed in 879 over-lapping leases, and escalating at a rapid rate. Apparently, it’s a licence to kill, destroy, exterminate, extinguishment, blasting, fracking, drilling, extracting, tunnelling, burning, toxic chemicals, creating mine dumps, rivers poisoned and native animals baited. All we ever get are never-ending programs of control and interference, when will it end? Not forgetting the A Bomb tests at three sites. 250 years later our continent is no longer pristine. Our ancestors are rotating in their sacred sites, if not thrown out and mixed with a toxic flat-top mine dumps.” (13)
The way Forward is to go Backwards
Until Rio Tinto is held accountable in a dramatic and sensationally inconvenient way, there will be more of the same. In fact, if they do escape castigation or hefty financial fines, it will only encourage other companies to be equally disrespectful. Even though if adhering to the law as it stands such flagrant destruction is legal, it makes no difference as there have to be consequences, that is obligatory.
Our solution is simple, every special important sacred site must have a buffer zone of no less than 500 metres. What happens to the next kilometre should be agreed through consultation with all parties. So too, money has to be paid to restore, revegetate and repair the immediate area near the cave. All rights on every mining lease that include sites of this magnitude must be removed retrospectively from all signed documents and renegotiated post haste. The local Original council in each location has to be large with 20-30 members being ideal, as this will mean a variety of families and clans have the right to speak and cast a vote.
The Bill that redresses the dismal state of affairs and theft should be called the Cedar Creek and Juukan Gorge Imperative, it must override all previous agreements. The logic behind this is simple, fair and utterly right. No miner or millionaire should have any say in the operation of and comings and goings of any sacred site of agreed massive significance. They have no genetic link to any local tribe, no cultural right to interfere or harm the site and no reason to even walk onto this sacred location. All their legal power was forfeited when the first bulldozer dropped its blade at Juukan Gorge. The company promising to review itself is farcical, as they behaved like vandals, past that point once they detonated the first explosive ignoring the pleas of the Elders, that company lost every right to that site and every other site of significance. Why is it the accredited Elders begged the company to stop, making it clear it was unacceptable, but they continued blowing up our national heritage? Whatever the reason, can they guarantee they will not do it again?
Words are cheap, real action is priceless, and Rio Tinto have plenty of money and it is time to pay for the damage. That’s it! That is all Rio Tinto have a right to complete, giving them control of any sacred site is tantamount to giving matches and petrol to arsonist in the Australian bush, the only difference is that eventually the trees and vegetation will grow back. When it comes to exploding and bulldozing at Juukan Gorge, that crime against humanity and all of Australia has to have consequences. If not, then blow up every site in the country and put us out of our misery, one site at a time like this is too painful, just get it over with, or go to court and make a full admission that this was intentional and provocative, and was known to be so before the first switch was flicked.
If nothing is done and Rio Tinto are not sanctioned, this unpunished crime against decency and morality will be a stain on this country’s conscience and reputation that will take centuries to resolve. It is time to step forward and repair or fall back and despair, there is no third option.
In concluding, the last words should come from Eddie, and they should be exactly as sent to me, any errors in grammar are utterly irrelevant and will hinder. It his tribal land under attack and his voice has to heard.
(1) John Fogerty & Creedence Clearwater Revival, 1970. “Who’ll Stop the Rain”, Cosmo’s Factory.
(2)-(3) Colin Hesse, 29th May, 2020. “Opinion: Environment Comes First”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd: Pyrmont, NSW), 25(n).
(4) Patricia Slidziunas, 29th May, 2020. “Opinion: Environment Comes First”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd: Pyrmont, NSW), 25(n).
(5) Paul McDonald, 29th May, 2020. “Opinion: Environment Comes First”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd: Pyrmont, NSW), 25(n).
(6) – (12) Clancy Yeates, 1st June, 2020. “News: Juukan Gorge Rio ‘sorry’ for blasting ancient Pilbara art site”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd: Pyrmont, NSW), 17(n).
(13) Eddie McPhee, 3rd June, 2020. Personal Communication, (To Steven Strong) via email.
(14) Eddie McPhee, 5th June, 2020. Personal Communication, (To Steven Strong) via email.