“The Sounds of Silence”(1)
By Steven & Evan Strong
With Shane Mortimer
As much as I am always on the lookout for ways to use song titles as headings, this is not my contribution, but that of an academic assisting. This was the title he chose that summed up the current state of official proceedings a week and a half since the sacred caves at Juukan Gorge were destroyed or badly damaged. He used a heading like this in an email to me after ten days contacting every department, official or site that had any relationship or obligation to what Rio Tinto recklessly desecrated, only to find no-one or group had done anything and nor did any express any intention to look, ask or even phone. Very simply, at that stage this academic felt it was like trying to dismantle a “wall of silence.”(2) Then three days on with a further intense effort to get anyone to respond and nothing improving, I noticed that his introductory phrase had morphed from a wall into sounds of silence. Tragically, at the time of writing and three days further along, no-one of authority has since stepped up, no independent body assessed or seen the damage, and for Rio Tinto it is back to the business of digging big holes in the dirt.
Many people are dismayed by this flagrant destruction of such a precious location and heritage, the fact that what Rio did is totally legal and their utter lack of recriminations or contrition. Seriously, the sham performance of the Rio spokesperson offering his condolences to a few families in the PKKP, beggars belief in its hypocrisy and blinkered target audience. When interviewed, time after time, regret was freely offered to the selected members of an Original organisation they pay token lip-service to. But when questioned about the wider impact of this planned destruction, in relation to its effect on all Original tribes, along with the national and global insult and outrage this created, no answer was given beyond returning to the sincere ‘distress’ they feel for the dozen or so Original representatives they personally deal with. As for everyone else on the planet, there is nothing to see here as they have no legal interest in these transactions, they need not be spoken to, apologised to nor deserve consideration.
“The law betrays the lore, so we’ll destroy it again”(3)
Without doubt the focal piece of law/legislation revolves around the permanent truth that what Rio Tinto did was entirely legal and ticked off by both state and federal governments. We chose that headline taken from a commentary made in Sydney Morning Herald, simply because this is the central point that has to be addressed. That is the recurring tragic reality, but what seems to be accompanying this evolving disaster at Juukan Gorge is an assumption that this ‘came out of the blue.’ That the destruction of both caves is wrong and unique, when the truth is it is normal and has been happening for so long. It is literally par for the course and no more than the accepted means of denial, silence and red tape that surrounds all mining leases on tribal land throughout the country.
The crucial legal loophole that enables destruction either without or ignoring Original stakeholders protesting, is through exclusive rights. Which means in pragmatic terms, that the mining companies and Minister together determine where to explode. That’s the full roll-call of personnel who will make the final decision. The Original people near and far are excluded and must do what they are told and have no legal redress to the mantra of “so we’ll destroy it again.”(4) That is the case at this site, which we will now follow up first, along with another soon to be legally destroyed site in Canberra and some very unusual bones of which we are the present-day custodians.
The Sergeant Schultz Award for Prevarication
There are so many worthy candidates loyal to the phrase ‘I know nothing, I see nothing,’ from which selecting who shall stand on the pedestal of inertia is not an easy task. There are many who could, but didn’t. Whether people in business, politics, media personalities, sports stars, moguls or politicians, all shared the same capacity to motivate or question, and all refused to challenge this one-sided directive and desecration.
When Ben Wyatt first accepted his posting as the West Australian Minister for Aboriginal Affairs, he was quite open in his criticism of the current interpretation of exclusive rights excluding Original stakeholders and promised to clear up this major stumbling block. Since then, not only has he done nothing, but he is no longer interested in changing anything and more than content to maintain the inequity and denial of Original involvement when the money starts to flow, In fact, there are instances where he stepped ahead and overrode the pathetic provisions that still remain so as to facilitate a heathier and more prosperous balance-sheet.
When rightly castigating all parties for what happened at Juukan Gorge, respected archaeologist, Dr. Kathryn Przywolnik, focused on another recent wholesale destruction of scared sites signed off by Ben Wyatt, when it was obvious he had no right to do so as the token archaeological investigation was nowhere near complete. Not for one second am I suggesting if the scientific process was completed any decision would have changed, but the rules are that token efforts must be made then overridden. Ben Wyatt has to at least make it look like one solitary Original or academic interlocutor was heard, then summarily dismissed.
“It was nearly three years ago that the current Minister for Aboriginal Affairs, Ben Wyatt, granted permission to FMG to destroy several rock shelters at Spear Hill in Eastern Guruma country without knowing the results of the excavating that was being undertaken.”(5) Przywolnik was adamant that “this was not an isolated incident,”(6) which now means one “rock shelter that is at least 23,000 years sits underneath a haul road and within metres of a railway.”(7) That destruction is solely due to Wyatt deciding before the science and archaeology was in, which really means it doesn’t matter if or when any opposing report is compiled, it will be ignored.
To be fair the fault does not lie solely with Ben Wyatt, Ken Wyatt, the Federal Minister for Aboriginal Affairs is not only related by blood and genes to his cousin Ben, but conducts Original business with the same degree of stealth and secrecy. David Crowe, the chief political correspondent for the Sydney Morning Herald, made the point when issues of this inconvenient magnitude bubble to the surface requiring a bold step forward, “Ken Wyatt treads so softly it is hard to be sure he is taking any steps at all.”(8)
Although treading “softly”(9), he did speak on this issue once in declaring he would protect every Original site in the country. What doesn’t add up is that the federal government already has the power to step in and intervene, but refused to do so. Now Wyatt is assuring us the same regulatory group will now protect all sites. There are literally hundreds of thousands of Original sites in this country, camping sites, tool working sites, arrangements of rocks that saw cooking or tool making perhaps once or twice, a midden used occasionally, even three discarded tools can be regarded as a legitimate site. So according to Ken Wyatt, not only will the best be saved, but so too the incidental and once-used. Since that sweeping generalisation, it is back to walking softly and towing the party-line.
Equally, it is not just a few conservative Original politicians solely blameworthy, it spreads throughout the entire fabric of governments. David Crowe pointed out that the Minister for the Environment had statutes on his books that gave him the right to step in, but “rather than using these powers to stop Rio Tinto, the federal Environment Minister was an idle bystander.”(10)
In conclusion, after assessing the credentials and public statements or refusal to do any more than pass the buck, the joint winners of the Sergeant Schultz prevarication and denial award goes to Ben and Ken. Undeniably, they are not the worst and are merely mid-level players, but their only brief is to fight for their people and Lore, whereas all the other deniers and liars have other agendas and profits to champion. They were appointed to defend and enlighten, but so far have only destroyed and forgotten the land, the spirits within and their obligations, and are now doing nothing to right this wrong except remain in power and not upset the miners.
Those That Spoke
Not everyone fell into line. SBS and the ABC did cover this issue, not deeply or continuously, but it was mentioned in passing dispatches. So too the Sydney Morning herald is still covering this issue and it certainly was raised often in Opinion pages in the centre. However, having praised the Herald for this minimal coverage, it is far from laudable as one article they ran in the West Australia edition of other sites designated to be exploded, included a site with a date of 60,000 years. What the Herald have never explained (and I doubt they ever will) is why is it the article was considered worthy of publication on the west coast of Australia, but taken out of all other editions? Is this censorship for seven eighths of Australia, or did the article slip in before those in control had the chance to read it and then decide it unworthy? Either way, even the only tabloid to pick this issue up is also picking and choosing, when the whole truth deserves to be heard and acted upon.
An ex-politician, Bob Brown demanded that there should be a Royal Commission, and Linda Burney has spoken on quite a few occasions voicing her disappointment and demanding for something to be done. Yes, a protest in Perth where close to 300 attended did take place, but when compared to other public protests, the scale is small and coverage less so. Yes, the Reconciliation Committee dumped Rio from the committee, but going on their track record that is the equivalent of a slap across the wrist with a feather-duster.
But the official response is no-one is to look, ask or insist on repairing, in fact no-one outside Rio knows what the scope of damage is. In fact, when the Taliban blew up the Buddhist statue, they filmed the destruction, informed the world and made an apology. Granted it was a very weak justification, but at least the world got something. At Juukan Gorge there is no film, no description of the carnage, no fines, blame or apology to anyone except a few Original people they are legally required to speak to when it suits them. What makes it even easier for Rio Tinto is that no-one is asking to look, demanding compensation or threatening legal action. Their thinking is hold tight wait for the fuss to die down, then strike again. Knowing that Ben and Ken will not object or change the statutes or Law, all they have to do is not speak, not allow anyone to look and the royalties will continue to flow.
50 metres or 11 metres, is all the Same
Aunty Bev, was the last full-descent Darkinyoong Elder, and was asked to speak at a public meeting protesting against a development application made by a sand-mining company to mine at a sacred women’s site at Kincumber. The sand-miners proposed to treat the women’s site using West Australia operating procedures.
At Ganga Maya they were granted permission to detonate up to 50 metres from the cave entrance, as marked out on the official map. At Juukan Gorge the rumours circulating indicate explosions took place as close as 11 metres from the cave. What Aunty Beve pleaded for, which was eventually accepted, was a sizable surrounding exemption zone. She explained to all those assembled that there are tracks and interconnecting ley lines between sites and because of this, the Kincumber women’s site is still pristine and ceremonies can be conducted. No-one assembled, including those who make decisions, questioned the truth Aunty Beve shared. In Western Australia no-one in control is even prepared to consider this notion, it is not on their table or agenda, it is all or nothing in a state where mining comes first and everything else gets into line.
The Next Step is …
According to Rio Tinto, they alone will decide what that is, at their leisure. And just like before, they will listen and talk then do exactly what suits them and their shareholders. As for repairing, reparation or any form of admission of wrong doing, that is simply not going to happen.
No-one outside the company employees knows what the damage actually is, and as things stand, that will not change. There are four possible outcomes, of course right now this is all guesswork, but even so we still feel it has to be one of four options that range from very bad through to annihilation.
- The caves are completely destroyed, the walls have collapsed and there are tonnes of rubble on the ground. One academic has tried to approach everyone trying to find if that is the case. If so, immediate archaeology in recovery mode collecting artefacts etc. is vital.
- Partial destruction would require strengthening walls and anywhere else showing structural damage. This will be costly, if possible everything inside has to be returned to its original state, and there will be cracks of some depth and length.
- Light damage near the entrance and just inside, with extensive upheaval outside in every direction. The front of the cave must be secured and so too the immediate area cleaned and re-vegetated.
- The destruction is all outside the cave and limited to the surrounding area. This would simply be a matter of leveling, replanting and fencing.
What is incredibly difficult to comprehend or react to is that no government official has even requested an inspection, so this is entirely guesswork and that is as utterly unsatisfactory as it is totally legal. This company is patently lacking integrity and any moral code, that is why the Reconciliation Council of Australia dumped this outfit. The problem is Rio really don’t care, as that makes no difference to what they are paid per tonne, from their perspective profits come before everything.
I Can’t Breathe
George Floyd was murdered, slowly and with absolutely no compassion or care given. What is happening in Australia, is always out of sight and never filmed. Whether a knee rammed up against the throat or explosives destroying a sacred site, the setting and people may vary, but not the plot. Rio, along with many other companies, would never be that sloppy in allowing a stray camera, tape recorder or any electronic device that would betray their real agenda.
In the last four days three Original groups or representatives have contacted me in regard to sacred locations being trashed, leveled and developed. Whether a housing subdivision or gated community with a private tennis court, what is always the case is that keepers of Lore and sacred locations are never heard in the corridors of power, while those they oppose are always heard and never opposed. That is the law in this country and that is the way all business in sacred country takes place.
It was our intention to include one candidate from the eleven discussed in our previous report, then conclude. Which we will still do, but after completing that task we feel it is compulsory to shift focus and geography in briefly investigating a sacred site in Canberra that seems destined to follow in Juukan Gorge’s crumbling footsteps.
Four Flatheads of Which None are Fish
At present, we know of four flathead skulls and associated bones spread across four states and separated by over two thousand kilometres. That spread of ancient bones automatically disqualifies any suggestion that because the skulls are so dramatically different from all hominins, which must include Homo sapiens sapien, this is an isolated deviation in genetic coding. They certainly are not mutations found within four different tribal estates, of which two we have personally examined, these beings are unlike anyone else has ever found on this planet.
A brief overview is sufficient in establishing the incredible importance of these skulls, and once again illustrates how any archaeology found in Australia that is inconvenient or unwanted is either ignored, denied or destroyed. That is how we do history in Australia, if it doesn’t fit refute, look the other way, throw it away or trash it.
The many reasons why these skulls are so unique can never be fully canvassed right now, but a few of the more bizarre features do need to be at least seriously considered. Especially since the current stance from academics and politicians is to do everything possible not to engage, look or discuss. These tactics sound so much like the official response to Juukan Gorge, as it must, because this is how the system works.
These skulls and bones are not remotely close in genetics and physical appearance to any terrestrial hominid. The fact that the reconstructed skull definitely is lacking in three sutures, having either two, or most likely none means it cannot be classified hominid. Equally, the skull shape is nothing like any sapien, it is at least 400 ccs larger, flask-shaped with the widest point of 17 cms being positioned not in the centre like us, but at the back. What is the most dramatic difference relates to the forehead, there isn’t one. Above the eyebrows the skull begins its descent at an angle of 170 degrees, which only recedes back more to over 200 degrees. That means about 90% of the brain is positioned below eye level, which is almost the complete opposite to sapiens’ brains.
The facial features have nothing in common with sapiens. The eyes are much larger by at least 46%, the eyebrow ridge peaks in a crest between the eyes, whereas ours is depressed in the centre. The nose of the flathead begins nearly 2 cms higher than ours does, the shape of the nose of the flathead is rounder, larger, higher and has to take on a completely different appearance to ours. Their teeth have three roots and each of these roots are curved, one in particular has an extremely pronounced arc. The mere thought of getting these teeth extracted at a dentist would be excruciating and nigh on impossible to envisage how it could be taken out unless cutting deeply into gum.
Above and beyond this sampling is the biggest and utterly unanswerable contradiction, the humerus bone. It measures no less than 46 cms, the remaining 43 cms I measured was lacking in an elbow joint and that means the bare minimum length is 46 cms with every chance it is longer. The problem is not only a length at least 10 cms greater than the arm of a gibbon. What breaks every genetic rule is that the bone of this unknown being is less than 2.5 cms at its widest point. It is too big to be that narrow as this width means it is literally a hanging, dangling appendage that can do little more than spectate.
Reporting in to the Relevant Authorities
All relevant government departments have been notified and have responded with vigour and sundry legal threats in itemising periods of detention (6 months to 3 years) and the associated financial penalties ($250,000-$1,000,000). Registered letters demanding pages upon pages of written explanations have been sent, as have over ten emails reminding me of the potential punishment ahead. It has been constant, backed up by academic associations lobbying the Federal and State Governments insisting we be severely dealt with.
Our crime is simple, we wrote about the skulls, provided photographs and solid supporting archaeology. No paper has been written discrediting our work, in fact no accredited scientist has ever personally inspected any bone, site or artefact we hold. This familiar tried and true approach of denial supplemented by the ‘sounds of silence,’ is the way we do things in this country. As many academics have publicly stated in responding to our work, give them ‘no air’ or recognition. The logic is that technique is the way things are done in this country and we deserve more of the same.
What is fascinating is that quite recently I received my fourth registered semi-threat/warning, which stated after serious consideration it has been decided that at present the authorities will not prosecute, for now. They reserved the right to do so in the future, but never implicitly stated what would cause them to reconsider.
It was just left in suspension. If reading between the lines, which is not a difficult task, my take is if I shut up and keep quiet no further action will be taken. But if I transgress and take further action in promoting the truth, I am off to court, and if they have their way, given free accommodation in a prison of their choosing. There were no explosions or confiscation here, but the same wall of silence is applied, and the truth is delayed.
The official Government stance on the skulls and bones I have is that they are content with them being stored with me, but if I take them to another place or arrange mtDNA testing or any other analysis, I will be immediately prosecuted. That has been made clear to me more than once, I am allowed to speak about it, but I am denied any form of science to analyse. Take away the explosions and the skulls have been silenced, kept away from any form of further investigation and remains outside the jurisdiction of any department to do anything other than block and stall.
This sounds so much like what is happening at Juukan Gorge, and what is about to happen in Canberra at a sacred site which is ironically positioned next to the Australian War Memorial.
The Third Instalment of new Laws Mistakenly Extinguishing Old Lore
Canberra Elder, Shane Mortimer, contacted me in regards to a very special site under threat of destruction and transformation into a gated community with a private tennis court. He was asking us to assist, which of course we readily agreed to help in any way possible. Once again, this site had passed all the legal hoops and was recognised as legitimate twice over. Upon that registration, the local Original custodians assumed that endorsement gave the site a degree of protection, which it did until someone with money turned up.
I asked Shane to send me details of his fight to save this site, guaranteeing him that unlike the Herald, it will not be censored but put up untouched. He sent two emails, the first deals solely with this site, and the second, the legal principle he has chosen as his way forward in resolving the theft of sacred sites and artefacts. Just like Yuukan Gorge, they played by the white-fella rules and won, then some money turned up and everything went pear-shaped almost instantaneously after.
The Geology Society of Australia, in a written assessment of the Ainslie Volcanics site in centre Canberra, just 1.5km from GPO Canberra, concluded by saying;
“In undertaking a literature review, (not limited to but including Henderson 1981, 1986; Owen 1987; Finlayson 2008, 2013; and Geoscience Australia), and applying the assessment criteria of Brocx & Semeniuk (2007, 2015) the following conclusions are reached: 1. Mount Ainslie is a formal type locality for the Ainslie Volcanics formation and, as such, has ACT-NSW state-wide significance; 2. dacites of the Ainslie Volcanics as a middle Silurian volcanic assemblage show lithological variability of tuffs, ignimbrites, agglomerates, flow-banded extrusive rocks, and intrusive rocks, and is a feature of National significance. Other dacites in Australia of different ages are lithologically/volcano-environmentally incomparable. The Ainslie dacites exhibit a wide range of lithology and modes of emplacement in a comparatively small area (the Canberra region) in the middle Silurian and therefore is a significant site for Earth history, for research, as a type location for dacite petrogenesis, and for teaching and geotours; 3 the dacites of the Ainslie Volcanics also are of Cultural Heritage significance to the Ngambri people (also known as the Kamberri, after which Canberra was named). The dacite outcrop area is “Men’s Business” and is very significant to the Nyamudy-Ngambri people. In conclusion, the GSA Ainslie Volcanics Heritage site, which includes the geology as well as the geomorphology (tors) on the old CSIRO site is Nationally significant and meets a number of ACT and Commonwealth and National Heritage List Criteria.
A/Prof Margaret Brocx
GSA, Convenor Standing Committee for Heritage (20/04/2020)”
Similarly, GeoHeritage Australia states in its’ “Executive summary on geo-heritage values of Mount Ainslie Volcanics
- The dacites of the Ainslie Volcanics as a middle Silurian volcanic assemblage showing lithological variability of tuffs, ignimbrites, agglomerates, flow-banded extrusive volcanic rocks, and intrusive rocks, is a feature of National significance. Other dacites (and associated andesite and rhyolite) in Australia are of different ages and comparatively different lithology showing differing modes of emplacement and environmental settings (i.e., they are lithologically and volcano-environmentally incomparable), i.e., for dacites, the various separate locations in Australia show differing aspects of dacites, and the Ainslie Volcanics exhibits a wide range of lithology and modes of emplacement in a comparatively small area (the Canberra region) in the middle Silurian. It is therefore a site that is significant for Earth history, for research, as a type location for dacite petrogenesis, and for teaching and geotours. As such, it is Nationally significant.
- The Ainslie Volcanics is a formal type locality, on the Geoscience Australia Database and, as such, has State-wide significance.
- The outcrops of the Ainslie Volcanics, occurring as a type of tor, is culturally significant to the Traditional Owners of the Nyamudy-Ngambri Peoples.”
In combination, this site has immense Cultural and geological significance, nonetheless, despite being awarded two official ticks, a developer is knocking at the gates and already has the key along with the right to enter and destroy. The reports agree that this site is “culturally significant to the Traditional owners”(11) and is “nationally significant”(12) in meeting “a number of Act and Commonwealth and National Heritage List criteria.”(13)
Having done all that was asked of the Original custodians, and apparently satisfying their conditions of approval twice, the developers are ready, willing and allowed to decimate at their choosing. Shane is still fighting against this latest betrayal and is confident there is a legal precedent that will prevail (more on that after the conclusion).
He may be right, but one thing is definite, all the legal statutes and legislation up till now have created the present situation, where for all intents and legal purposes, Original Keepers of Lore and protectors of sacred sites are disenfranchised and have no legal rights at these sites. The dividend and dollar reign supreme, did so since the invasion and still does to this very day. What the mining companies are doing is shameful, outrageous and deceitful, what government has facilitated is more of the same, and what the Original Elders and Keepers are allowed to do right now is complain, knowing in advance that past history shows that they cannot win or litigate under the current legal and political setting.
What has recently happened is immoral, moreover, it will continue unless there is a change of policies and mining company mindset. Justice should champion every cultural affront and insult, but our country has been blinded by the dollar. If this is what our leaders are bequeathing us, where every site is directly under threat, then our future has to change quickly and the ascension in earthly vibration beginning on December 21, is the only way out of this global catastrophe.
There are none, hasn’t been any since the British First Fleet sailed into Sydney. Until quite recently I actually thought that sacred sites of high standing were afforded some degree of protection, that is simply not true. From 1788 up to today, and probably well into the future, every site has a selling price and Original keepers of Lore and not allowed to bid or haggle. Eddy has given up, Shane has walked away and we now realise it was all a charade. This institutionalised divide is festering and growing at an alarming rate, no matter how the Original people play their game, whether geological or archaeological reports establishing an undeniable link or evidence, it makes absolutely no difference. Money talks in these exclusive circles and while it has the podium the voices of reason, culture and fair-play cannot be heard and are barely tolerated.
Deep down we know these articles will make absolutely no difference. We did this because we were asked, because they are right, and the other mob are wrong. What is shameful and a stain on the soul of this nation, is that today being right in Original matters means very simply, stand aside and allow those with bulldozers, explosives and fat wallets to ply their evil trade. There is slogan and banner we see and hear often insisting that “Black Lives Matter,” not here, not now, not while mining companies and developers bleed the country dry.
*Shane’s Legal Light and Path Forward*
Following is my response to a request from the MC for the “Rights of Culture” Conference at Australian Parliament House.
Points on Allodial Title that ALL First People can cite:
- All Land Titles derive from Allodial Title
- Allodial Title is ORIGINAL TITLE it cannot be extinguished
- There must be evidence of a record of exchange for Allodial Title to transfer from one entity to another
- Allodial Title is the essence of Community Title and requires 100% agreement of the community Allodial Titleholders to exchange.
- No one person can sign away Allodial Title by treaty, ILUA or any other form of agreement.
- Allodial Title is “Beneficial Title” which means that the Allodial Titleholder entitlement is to ‘benefit’ from everything below the ground to the core of the Earth and everything above the Earth to the stars.
The British/Australian Crown has no “Beneficial Title” to land in Australia. The Crown claim is to “Radical Title”. Here is opinion from the University of Melbourne on Allodial Title:
“It is a question of law, mainly an unanswered question brought about by the Mabo decision. Upon arrival in Australia, the Crown acquired what is referred to as “radical title”. If Australia were truly terra nullius, radical title did not imply full beneficial ownership. In Mabo v Queensland (No.2) (1992) 175 CLR 1 483 the High Court concluded that the Crown’s radical title only conferred sovereignty, and sovereignty did not extinguish native title by default.
Therefore, while sovereignty remained with the Crown, the beneficial ownership or title remained with the original inhabitants.
The main issue I see is that the lower courts can’t disregard the associated findings in Walker v NSW (1994) 126 ALR 321, that the High Court’s single source of authority, and the extent of the parameters of its jurisprudence are derived solely from the Crown itself, therefore it had no authority or jurisdiction to hear challenges to the legitimacy of the Crown’s jurisdiction.
Therefore, it is the Crown that has a form of pseudolaw themselves, albeit a matter that’s beyond the reach of review in domestic Australian courts.”
(1)-(2) academic (name withheld), 2020. Personal Communication to Steven Strong.
(3)-(4) Deb Wilkinson and Peter Burnett, June 11th 2020. “Opinion column”‘ The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Pty Ltd: Pyrmont), 26(n).
(5)-(7) Dr Kathryn Przywolnik, June 9th, 2020. “Juukan was not alone: The true extent of WA sites sacrificed for the sake of the almighty dollar”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Pty Ltd: Pyrmont), https://www.smh.com.au/national/juukan-was-not-alone-the-true-extent-of-wa-sites-sacrificed-for-the-sake-of-the-almighty-dollar-20200608-p550l6.html
(8)-(10) David Crowe , June 12th , 2020. “Opinion”, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Fairfax Media Pty Ltd: Pyrmont), 28(n).
(11)-(12) GeoHeritage Australia “Executive summary on geo-heritage values of Mount Ainslie Volcanics
(13) A/Prof Margaret Brocx (GSA, Convenor Standing Committee for Heritage) (20th April, 2020. Geology Society of Australia