The Final Three Nails in the ‘Out-of-Africa’ Coffin
The Final Three Nails in the ‘Out-of-Africa’ Coffin
By Steven & Evan Strong
For some time we have been presenting genetic and archaeological evidence which contradicts fundamental assumptions that underpin the foundations of the Out-of-Africa theory and accompanying interpretations of human origin and evolution. What never ceases to amaze is that despite the sheer quantity and undeniably quality of the opposing science being published, the great majority of academics and appointed spokespeople refuse to listen or reconsider.
According to the prevailing bias everything begins in Africa. Whether it be the very first hominid, Homo habilis, Homo erectus or the still unfound common ancestor of both apes and hominins, everything is sourced in Africa. The rationale has been constant over the past fifty years, if the place of genesis for all monkeys, apes and hominins is African, so too does that apply to what is claimed to be the crowning glory of the hominid tree: Homo sapiens sapien. No matter how many papers on genes, Y Chromosomes, skull morphology or archaeology suggesting that Australia is the more likely birthplace of modern humans, mainstream science refuses to step down from the African pedestal. Their defense is predictable, as there is nothing else left, if the oldest hominin yet found is African, then this is where it all began.
The mantle of our most ancient African ancestor was originally awarded to ‘Lucy’ (Australopithecus Afarensis-3,200,000 years) who resided in Ethiopia, then recently marginally repositioned within that country in response to the discovery of another hominin called Ardi (Ardipithecus Ramidus-4,400,000 years), which has since been supplemented by rumours of dates touching six million years for a very crude hominin found in Kenya. The problem with drawing absolute definitive African lines in the sand is that at any moment the wind can blow in from an unexpected direction, and because of this the remaining African first has been delegated to a distant second place. Together Bulgaria and Greece, not Africa, is now officially agreed to be the two locations where the oldest hominin yet found anywhere on the planet first walked.
A mandible from Greece and tooth from Bulgaria of a hominin named Graecopithecus was analysed using the latest advances in dating and returned dates of 7,175,000 and 7,240,000 years. Both remains were separated by some distance and are distinctly European, but most importantly, they show “features that point to a possible phylogenetic affinity with hominins.”(1) Until now the entire cast of early hominins was assumed to be African, now there are at least two lineages in reproduction and the Eastern European hominin has the lead role of ‘Adam.’
Who can say whether the Homo sapien strand of today evolved out of the European or African branch? It could be either, but knowing the older hominins are found in Europe, the odds are it is less likely to be African. What is not in question is “that major splits in the hominin family occurred outside Africa.”(2) The speculation over who has very distant parental links to modern humans has always been based in Africa, but the researchers are convinced “that major Miocene hominid radiations occurred outside Africa and endorse the hypothesis that the hominin clade arose in the Eastern Mediterranean.”(3) What this means is that well over seven million years ago the most evolved hominin with the largest cranium size bearing anatomical features we retain today, was wandering around the European countryside at least a million years the first African hominin.
Nor should we cavalierly dismiss the credentials and intellect of what may be the very first hominin. It was noted that “Graecopithecus inhabited different habitats, be it open braided-river landscapes in Azmaka or the wooded grasslands of Pyrgos.”(4) Adapting to different food sources, geography and food gathering techniques demands deep thought and predictions. It all sounds so human, as it should.
If it isn’t enough to be ‘blindsided‘ by this date and location, it seems that mainstream academia will also have to throw the first chimp out with the ‘bath water.’ Until this unwelcome extension in timing and geography, it was assumed the split between hominins and the ‘lesser’ chimpanzees and apes from a common ancestor took place between five to six million years ago in the place where such creatures roam, Africa. At best estimates, the theoretical parting of the ways has to be re-set backwards by no less than two million years, and what only complicates matters is that there are no chimps or apes in Bulgaria or Greece.
Out-of-Africa is now Out-of-Control
In summing up the major thrust of this research, what we have is a global spread of hominins not dependent on either Africa or proximity to monkeys and apes, which has been in process for more than seven million years. At some considerable time after this transformation was occurring in Europe (and perhaps Australia) the same step forward began in Africa independently, or through a few intrepid souls migrating south into Africa and spreading their seed. It is a matter of either or, but under the current state of play, when it comes to where this happened first, the answer is no longer Africa.
Of course, even if relegated to the second rung, that of itself does not rule out the mistaken assumption that modern humans evolved in Africa somewhere between 200-300,000 years ago. This event and timing supposedly marks the final separation in this multi-forked primate tree, all the other recent hominids (Neanderthal, Denisovan, Red Deer Cave Man, Florensis etc.) come into existence during and after this split, never before. That was the common belief, but has been put to rest. Over the past year we have heard talk of 400, then 500 and now we have no less than 750,000 years as the time when this division began. So what has happened during the last year is that the timing as to when Homo sapiens evolved has gone backwards by half a million years. These hominins keep getting older, more prolific, varied and found in the most unexpected locations. Compounding the unreliability of this blinkered approach, at the very least, the time when apes and hominids parted genetic ways is out by two million years. What we can see is a pattern and it’s full of holes leaking all over the globe.
A paper released in July of this year titled “Early History of Neanderthals and Denisovans”(5). Rogers, Bohlender & Huff present detailed calculations that provide the time when two now extinct hominid groups became genetically distinct species. The researchers openly conceded that their mathematics “is surprisingly old.”(6) They were very aware that “our results also disagree with previous estimates of the Neanderthal-Denisovan separation time,”(7) but the rigour of their genetic analysis was of such high pedigree they were certain that a date of “25,660 generations or 744ky”(8) is correct.
There are no Degrees of Separation on the European Plains
The extensive genetic analysis shows that the date of three quarters of a million years marks the time when the Neanderthal and Denisovan strands separated. As to when their shared common ancestral line that sired the very first hominin, from which all hominids, whether ancient or modern evolved took place, their genetic studies indicate that occurred not long before, barely “300 generations after the separation of archaics from moderns.”(9) In combination the total of 25,900 generations exceeds by half a million years the maximum date as to when Homo sapiens first evolved, and is larger by a factor of three. Normally research of this antiquity and genetic complexity is hedged around equivocations, not this time around as “this separation time is estimated with high confidence.”(10)Before trying to accommodate such numbers it needs to be appreciated that the setting and motivations, along with solid servings of intellect, was an integral part of this equation. When listing the expectations, known history of the earliest presence of these two hominids and proposed areas of enquiry, the researchers noted that at “around 600 kya, Europe was invaded by large-brained hominins using Acheulean stone tools.”(11) To be honest, until 10,000 years ago that statement could quite easily sum up the conventional view of ancient human history pre-farming. From a point nearing seven figures until well into four, it is proposed in all accepted theories of human evolution that hominin hunter-gatherers lived with nature using a stick, stone and bone tool–kit. It is quite conceivable that from this distant point of entry and lifestyles chosen until recent times, very little changed and these ancient people are indeed our ancestors.
The dates are wrong all over the time-line, as for the preferred geography perhaps a solid dose of genes may assist in the need to find new digs to relocate. Highly respected American geneticist, Rebecca Cann, was adamant that it was never in Africa, but Australia, where Homo sapiens sapien first appeared. “Mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aborigines arose 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages, far earlier than any other racial type.”(12)
Knocking on the Neighbour’s Tooth/Door
The third, and most recent paper, trumped out as another readjustment to be squeezed into the Out-of-Africa box, begins with a familiar admission of error. The date of somewhere between “73,000 and 63,000 years,”(13) for a human tooth in Indonesia using “luminescence, uranium series and electron spin resonance dating”(14) was agreed to be “surprising.”(15) It was thought that “the oldest previous evidence of rainforest use by modern humans in Southeast Asia was from 45,000 years ago,”(16) which means this is yet another unwelcome recurrence in an error in timing of somewhere between 20,000 to 30,000 years beyond the agreed upper limit.
In what only compounded the inconvenience, the researchers readily agreed such a sophisticated lifestyle was at odds with not only the far more conservative date, but the actual choice of habitat was just as problematic. “Living in dense rainforests requires complex hunting technology and knowledge that the first humans out of Africa would not have possessed and yet we find evidence of modern humans in rainforests as soon as they arrived in Southeast Asia.”(17) Agreed to be illogical twice over, we find it difficult to understand why so many hang on to the few remaining threads of this unravelling yarn of migrants from Africa in very ancient days.
Despite all the conceded irregularities one imperative still reigned untouched, so all that remained was to shift the African goal posts and tweak the numbers. Fortunately, they had the common sense to present their conclusion in the form of a question. ”So were the first Australasians much quicker at getting from Africa to Asia, much better at adapting to new environments, and much better at exploring new areas than we previously thought?”(18) Three assumptions in one sentence prefaced around a question mark is a fair summation as to where their current understanding of what really happened is rusted on to.
The Dominant Species???
hat comes out of this bundle of equivocations, questions and assumptions is a few minor adjustments to the prevailing belief as to where humans originated and behaved and leave the rest as it was, beginning in jungles of Africa and will be forever more. That notion of survival of the fittest, overcoming the odds and other species that obstruct or offend through intellect, cunning and superior cranium capacity, is actually quite flawed as Neanderthals had a brain size over 200 cc larger than the largest modern day skull. It would seem the art sapiens have perfected beyond all other hominins was warfare and dominance and that species’ ‘calling card’ excuses so many sins and atrocities. It’s just part of how we are wired and all we can do is tinker around the edges. Our most recent history is by and large angry and brutal, but alas these are the qualities needed when in conflict or suffering the strife many in power yearn.
There are two choices up for consideration that come out these accounts. The endorsed version runs something like this, a dominant female primate with ape-like features sired a mutation/hybrid hominin which lead to many improvements over millions of years before another progression forward where one female bore the progeny of the superior sapien lineage. The many other hominins did cross-breed over tens of thousands of years, but due to their lesser genes, inefficient coping mechanisms or less aggressive tendencies, they all died out leaving the sapiens sole heirs of all they conquered, and so it continued in that fashion until today.
Granted there are no bones or genes of either of the two hypothetical transitional species on offer, and until three months ago every relevant authority would have sworn this all took place in Africa, that is now wrong in location and precedence. The separation date between monkeys and apes is out by millions, throw in at least another half a million going backwards for the splitting of hominids and it becomes hard to pinpoint anything that can be claimed to be definite. Nevertheless, despite the fluctuating maths and flawed suppositions these events are still considered to be a factual account of how we came to be.
“Trees and eagle …
You know eagle?
He can listen.
Eagle our brother,
Like dingo our brother.”(19) (Big Bill Neidjie-Elder Kakadu)
Original Elders, some nearing the calibre of Bill Neidjie, maintain that there is a completely different reality and antiquity at play and their Original truths and Dreaming Stories deserve no less than equal consideration.
When comparing two dramatically different approaches to living there is a fundamental dichotomy at play that highlights why the current behaviour and expectations about the past are so flawed and wrong. Bill is adamant that “our story is in the land … it is written in those sacred places. My children will look after those places, that’s the law.”(20)
But where are the profits, dividends and jobs? Such objections could only come from a society and people whose “story”(21) is written on paper. Original history was sacred and oral, guarded from birth to death for its authenticity and attention to detail, yet also recorded on, through and into sacred rocks that are an extra guarantee of the truth never being lost. Such society lives with the flow of nature and the needs and bounty of their tribal estate. Every soul is obligated to protect “this earth … I never damage, I look after.”(22)
So then, what do the people who insist that “tree the same as me”(23) as is eagle and dingo, have to say about how they see creation, genesis and all things in between?
It goes something like this. In the beginning the Seven Sisters of the Pleiades came to the Earth, and in particular Australia, seeking an agreement with the Original people to share their wisdom and genes, thus creating a way for them to incarnate on this planet. Consent was given in the spirit of a Divine partnership of equals creating the potential for this liaison of as on top so below to be “higher than the god who had created us and the powers with him.”(24) It was the best from above and the best from down here inspired by trust and good intentions that saw the genetic addition of a decidedly off-world input that led to the appearance of Homo sapiens sapien in Australia. Those liberating genes were then spread around the world as the Original people of Australia set sail to distant lands, thus ensuring each modern human had within the genetic key to their salvation at their beckoning when the timing was right with decisions needed to be made.
The Seven Sisters from that distant constellation never left, they reincarnate on this planet when urgent situations like those of today loom on the horizon, which always require their personal attention. The time-line in this country is circular and is all bar complete, all other contrary explanations are at best a distraction and should be ignored. They have to be dismissed as the two pivotal separation points are unsubstantiated by any remaining bones or mtDNA samples, and these so-called missing links that were responsible for the splitting of apes from hominins and further on the separation of the hominids have never been found on the ground.
“Tree, Same as me”(25)
Equally what makes the sapiens the superior breed of hominin? What are the differences found in intellect, tool-kits or lifestyles while all these different lineages co-existed? The answer is none, the other strands had culture, art, language, religion and lived exactly as our ancestors did. The experts agree that our mob did nothing special during these ancient times, everyone lived a simple hunter-gatherer lifestyle. So what made us prevail, was it our intelligence or maybe some extraordinary physical ability? No on both counts, the Neanderthal’s larger brain would see the sapiens lose every quiz and the reproduction of the Denisovan’s image reveals a person who looks just like us in every physical respect.
Many of us, myself included, are a genetic dog’s breakfast. My 4.7% Denisovan genetic content is merely part of this merging of many ancient hominin genes and reminds all of us we were one large global family. We sincerely doubt anything would have changed to this day, but the off-world expedition from the Pleiades that led to the creation of a new strand carrying the best of both worlds changed everything.
From our point of view it comes down to one fundamental stance, either tree is same as me or it is merely wood to be cut down for a profit. The accompanying history, culture and attitudes come after this event. The choice is simple, we are either clever monkeys that stumbled out of the caves on two legs and slowly learnt how to stand upright, or galactic angels that can fly to the stars and all points in between.
(1) Fuss J, Spassov N, Begun DR, Böhme M (2017). “Potential hominin affinities of Graecopithecus from the Late Miocene of Europe”. PLoS ONE, 12(5): e0177127. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177127
(2) Böhme M, Spassov N, Ebner M, Geraads D, Hristova L, Kirscher U, et al. (2017). “Messinian age and savannah environment of the possible hominin Graecopithecus from Europe.” PLoS ONE, 12(5): e0177347. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177347
(5) Alan R. Rogers, Ryan J. Bohlender & Chad D. Huff (2017). “Early history of Neanderthals and Denisovans”, PNAS, 2017 114 (37) 9859-9863,
(12) Robert Lawlor, (1991). “Voices of the First Day: Awakening in the Aboriginal Dreamtime”, (Inner Traditions: Rochester, Vermont), 26.
(13) Kira Westaway, (2017). “Old teeth from a rediscovered cave show humans were in Indonesia more than 63,000 years ago”, The Conversation: Academic rigor, journalistic flair, http://theconversation.com/old-teeth-from-a-rediscovered-cave-show-humans-were-in-indonesia-more-than-63-000-years-ago-82075
(19) Big Bill Neidjie, Stephen Davis & Allan Fox, 1986. “Australia’s Kakadu Man Bill Neidjie”, (Resource Managers Pty Ltd: Darwin, N.T.), 46.
(20) Ibid, 47.
(22) Ibid, 35.
(23) Ibid, 58.
(24) George W. MacRae (Introducer & Translator) & Douglass M. Parrott (Editor), “The Apocalypse of Adam (V,5)” in The Nag Hammadi Library in English: The Definitive Translation of the Gnostic Scriptures Complete in One Volume, Edited by James M. Robinson (General Editor), 3rd edn, (Harper San Francisco- Harper Collins Publishers: New York, NY) (Verse 64:16-18), 279.
(25) Bill Neidjie et el, “Australia’s Kakudu Man…”, 58.